In India, rice is known as the most essential food crop. These rice crops of India cover approximately one-fourth of the total harvested area. Also, these staple crops provide food to nearly half of the Indian population.
Rice is also a staple food to the southern and northern parts of the country. As per reports, there are about 10,000 types of rice in the world out of which approximately 4,500 are grown within India itself. Also, it is categorized as the primary food source all over Asia by providing basic food necessities to millions of people.
The establishment of rice as a primary food crop around the world took a long time, but when it acquired the roots it remained and keep growing as a necessity. Therefore, becoming an important and vital source in the agricultural and economic activities for the people. The southern and eastern part of the country is dependent on rice. Whereas the northern part is primarily more dependent on wheat, but rice also holds the main part as it is also cooked almost daily.
Being an important source for millions of people, it is beneficial and important to know its harvesting conditions and how is rice grown.
There are many necessary conditions to be considered for Rice plantation. Therefore, the varying temperature and land scale conditions in India for this crop are from 8° to 25° N latitude, and the scale from sea level varies about 2,500-meter altitude. Rice is a tropical plant that requires high heat and humidity for its flourishment. Since it requires high heat the temperature should be at a monthly average of24°C. Ranging could be fairly 20°- 22°C at sowing time of the crops, 23°-25°C at the growth period, and 25°-30°C when it’s time for crop harvest. Rainfall also has a key role for successful growth, which requires average rainfall of about 150cm.
In areas of the country that offer high rainfall of about 200cm, rice is known to be the main. Also being important to areas that have rainfall of 100-200cm. But in the areas like Punjab, Haryana, and U.P which show rainfall of less than 100cm, rice is grown with the help of irrigation. Also, approximately 40 per cent of the rice grown in India is under the irrigation method.
The soil requirements for rice are generally for varieties like silts, loams, and gravels, these crops can even bare acidic soils as well as alkaline soils. Rice plantation is done mostly with high labour requirements, with less use of high machinery. Therefore, it is grown in areas with a high population with an abundance of labour.
An important factor for rice cultivation is the quality of seeds used in order to get sufficient crop yield. Therefore, it is necessary to take quality time to select the right seeds and take proper care of them. Healthy seeds result in well-flourished crops. Hence, the main components seed should have are the right selection of seeds with the right variety, should be clean, the seeds must be mature and have high sprouting capacity.
It is also necessary for the seeds to have a fungicide treatment that will protect the seeds from future damages by fungi and also these fungicides help to provide growing strength to the seedlings.
Rice Cultivation Methods
There are a variety of methods used for the cultivation of this crop, which is decided upon the climatic
conditions, land area, quality of the soil and population size which can be considered for how is rice grown.
This method is generally used for cultivation in areas with plenty of fertile soil, a high amount of rainfall, and an abundance of labor. For this method, in a nursery seeds are sown to prepare seedlings. After the timespan of 4-5 weeks, the seedlings are moved and planted in the field prepared for this cultivation purpose. This process requires inputs and is done all by hand. But it creates a high yield level.
Seeds are sown broadcast by hand. This method is mainly practised in the areas which are moderately dry, and the soil has less fertile land and there is not much labour for the work required in the field. This is known as the easiest method for rice cultivation by putting minimum effort.
This method is highly adopted in the foremost rice cultivating regions of India. The seeds used in this method are of premium quality high yield seeds. For this method seeds are placed in a nursery bed, then transferred to rows by making the fertilizing process and weeding process easier. The use of fertilizers in this process with high to create high yielding crops.
This rice cultivation method is generally entitled to the peninsular regions of the country. The cultivation process is confined to two people who sow the seeds and do the necessary ploughing
These are the requirements and processes for how is rice grown in India and makes rice one of the essential staple food in the country.
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